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Ferdinand II, Counter-Reformation Emperor, 1578-1637

Emperor Ferdinand II (1619-1637) stands proud as a very important determine within the Counter-Reformation in relevant Europe, a number one participant within the Thirty Years conflict, an important ruler within the consolidation of the Habsburg monarchy, and the emperor who reinvigorated the place of work after its decline lower than his predecessors. this can be the 1st biography of Ferdinand considering a long-outdated one written in German in 1978 and the 1st ever in English. It appears to be like at his reign as territorial ruler of internal Austria from 1598 till his election as emperor and particularly on the effect of his mom, the ambitious Archduchess Maria, as a way to comprehend his later guidelines as emperor. This booklet specializes in the consistency of his regulations and the profound impact of faith on his guidelines all through his profession. It additionally follows the competition at courtroom among those that favourite consolidation of the Habsburg lands and people who aimed for growth within the empire, in addition to among those that preferred a militant non secular coverage and those that encouraged a average one.

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Ernesto Adalbert von Harrach e l. a. Controriforma in Europa Centrale (1620–1667) (Rome, 2005), 62–3. Temi e Testi; see additionally Hurter nine: 213–24. Käthe Spiegel, “Die Prager Universitätsunion (1618–1654),” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen sixty two (1924): 13–14, 17–20; Alois Kroess, Geschichte der böhmischen Provinz der Gesellschaft Jesu 2:1 (Vienna, 1927): 107–16. 146 Consolidation and enlargement, 1621–1628 the lead within the recovery of the church in Bohemia. ninety two He claimed for himself the chancellorship of the college and supreme oversight over it in response to the papal bulls that had confirmed it.

Rudolf rejected this concept and peremptorily brushed off of his leader ministers simply because that they had supported this movement. fifty nine The succession used to be at stake. In October Matthias met with Ferdinand and Maximilian within the small city of Schottwein approximately part manner among Graz and Vienna, therefore fending off the curious eyes of Prague, to debate the location. 60 should still Rudolf die and not using a transparent successor within the Empire, the Lutheran elector of Saxony and the Calvinist elector of the Palatinate, based on the imperial structure, might function imperial vicars till an election will be held, and it was once now not a much succeed in Protestant emperor will be selected.

Moreover, with John George on his aspect, Ferdinand effectively hindered the formation of a united Protestant entrance. Elector George William of Brandenburg, although in my view a Calvinist, could as a rule persist with the lead of John George. either Protestant electors remained aligned with Ferdinand till the fateful Edict of Restitution ten years later. until eventually past due might, Ferdinand nonetheless was hoping that additional negotiations could convey higher Austria again to acceptance of his authority. Nor did he are looking to permit Bavarian troops to invade the territory.

Why did Ferdinand no longer continue extra aggressively opposed to the estates in his territories? definitely one cause within the territories that had no longer rebelled was once his admire for legislation. Even in spiritual issues, the place he will be acknowledged to have bent the legislation, he claimed that he continually acted legally. This have been the case early in his rule in internal Austria whilst he contended that the Pacification of Brück of 1578 didn't bind him. With admire to decrease Austria, Ferdinand in a letter of 1620 to the Elector of Cologne asserted that “he had acted and may act in basic terms in the conventional limits ‘as this land’s undeniable hereditary lord and prince.

Und 18. Jahrhundert (Berlin 2003). Zeitschrift für historische Forschung, Beiheft 32. “Princeps in Compendio,” ed. Franz Bosbach, Das Herrscherbild im 17. Jahrhundert, ed. Konrad Repgen (Münster, 1991), 100–1. Schriftenreihe der Vereinigung zur Erforschung der Neueren Geschichte, 19. Virtutes. seventy four. Mark Hengerer, Kaiserhof und Adel in der Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts: Eine Kommunikationsgeschichte der Macht in der Vormoderne (Constance, 2004), seventy two, a hundred and twenty, 290. Historische Kulturwissenschaft three. Consolidation and growth, 1621–1628 127 of Moravia who remained in his see, and Gundacker von Liechtenstein, brother of Karl.

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