By Kevin Kenny
William Penn proven Pennsylvania in 1682 as a "holy test" within which Europeans and Indians might dwell jointly in concord. during this booklet, historian Kevin Kenny explains how this peaceful Kingdom--benevolent, Quaker, pacifist--gradually disintegrated within the eighteenth century, with disastrous results for local american citizens.
Kenny recounts how rapacious frontier settlers, such a lot of them of Ulster extraction, started to encroach on Indian land as squatters, whereas William Penn's sons do away with their father's Quaker background and became as an alternative to fraud, intimidation, and finally violence through the French and Indian struggle. In 1763, a bunch of frontier settlers referred to as the Paxton Boys exterminated the final twenty Conestogas, descendants of Indians who had lived peacefully because the 1690s on land donated by means of William Penn close to Lancaster. Invoking the primary of "right of conquest," the Paxton Boys claimed after the massacres that the Conestogas' land used to be rightfully theirs. They set out for Philadelphia, threatening to sack town except their grievances have been met. A delegation led through Benjamin Franklin met them and what used to be a confrontation, with Quakers doing conflict opposed to Anglican and Presbyterian champions of the Paxton Boys. The killers have been by no means prosecuted and the Pennsylvania frontier descended into anarchy within the past due 1760s, with Indians the crucial sufferers. the hot order heralded via the Conestoga massacres used to be consummated through the American Revolution with the destruction of the Iroquois confederacy. on the finish of the progressive struggle, the USA confiscated the lands of Britain's Indian allies, basing its declare at the precept of "right of conquest."
Based on huge learn in eighteenth-century basic resources, this enticing heritage bargains an eye-opening examine how colonists--at first, the backwoods Paxton Boys yet later the U.S. government--expropriated local American lands, finishing without end the dream of colonists and Indians dwelling jointly in peace.
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Assertion, in PP, 102–3. sixteen. announcement, in PP, 102–3. 17. announcement, in PP, 104. 18. Pemberton to Fothergill, March 7, 1764, pp. 6–7, nine; Foulke, “Fragments,” 70–72; Muhlenberg, Journals, 2:23; Crowley, “The Paxton Disturbance,” 319. An handle submitted by means of Philadelphia Quakers to John Penn additionally gave the date of the statement as February 6 (PP, 103). 19. statement, in PP, one zero five. by means of “interior” the Paxton Boys, following modern utilization, intended japanese Pennsylvania. 20. PP, 4–5; Pemberton to Fothergill, March 7, 1764, p.
Four. MPCP, 9:268–70, 276. five. MPCP, 9:269–70. 6. MPCP, 9:268; J. Smith, An Account, 124–25. 7. MPCP, 9:267–68, 271. eight. MPCP, 9:234, 264–66. nine. MPCP, 9:272, 273, 274, 276. 10. MPCP, 9:292–93, 297. eleven. On Quaker suspicions that the will for a proprietary-Presbyterian alliance motivated John Penn’s reaction to the Paxton Boys in 1764, see Hutson, Pennsylvania Politics, 110–13, 153–55; Hanna, Benjamin Franklin, 156–58. For the Assembly’s criticisms of Penn later within the 1760s, see pp. 213–14, 222, 224–25 above. 12. PHMC, RG-21, documents of the Proprietary executive, Provincial Council, Miscellaneous Papers, merchandise 262, Deposition: Jacob Whisler.
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Yet they can not have without delay escaped the Paxton Boys simply because that they had left Conestoga Indiantown good sooner than the bloodbath there came about. Penn believed the 2 Indians had left greater than fifteen months earlier than he issued his order in August 1764, that's, a minimum of seven months ahead of the Paxton Boys struck. but the Moravian missionary Bernhard Adam Grube, who knew the Indians of the Susquehanna Valley greater than most—and definitely higher than Penn did—wrote that Michael and Mary have been dwelling less than the security of an area Mennonite settler for fifteen years, no longer fifteen months, in December 1763.
15. MPCP, 9:685, 687–88. sixteen. PA 1, IV, 378–79. 17. JP to TP, November 25, 1770, HSP, Penn Papers, Off. Corr. , X, 224, in SCP, 4:135; SCP, four: xiv; MPCP, 10:52. 18. MPCP, 9:710–11. 19. MPCP, 9:711–13; PA 1, IV, 383, 385–92; SCP, 4:152–55. 20. MPCP, 9:714–17 (quote, 715). 21. PA 1, IV, 384; SCP, 4:153–54, 203–4. 22. MPCP, 9:767–73. bankruptcy 22 1. PA 2, XVIII, 88–95; SCP, 5:81–86, 120–21, 142–46. 2. SCP, 6:144–46; Boyd, The Susquehannah corporation, 37. three. SCP, 5:9, 31, 51–52. four. SCP, 6:412–14. five. SCP, 7: xv; Boyd, Susquehannah corporation, forty two; Treese, hurricane amassing, 166.