The Ruby Programming Language

By David Flanagan, Yukihiro Matsumoto

The Ruby Programming Language is the authoritative consultant to Ruby and offers entire assurance of models 1.8 and 1.9 of the language. It was once written (and illustrated!) via an all-star team:

  • David Flanagan, bestselling writer of programming language "bibles" (including JavaScript: The Definitive Guide and Java in a Nutshell) and committer to the Ruby Subversion repository.
  • Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto, author, clothier and lead developer of Ruby and writer of Ruby in a Nutshell, which has been extended and revised to turn into this book.
  • why the fortunate stiff, artist and Ruby programmer extraordinaire.

This e-book starts with a quick-start educational to the language, after which explains the language intimately from the ground up: from lexical and syntactic constitution to datatypes to expressions and statements and on via tools, blocks, lambdas, closures, periods and modules.

The ebook additionally features a lengthy and thorough creation to the wealthy API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented instance code -- Ruby's amenities for textual content processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. a whole bankruptcy is dedicated to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities.

The Ruby Programming Language records the Ruby language definitively yet with out the formality of a language specification. it truly is written for knowledgeable programmers who're new to Ruby, and for present Ruby programmers who are looking to problem their knowing and bring up their mastery of the language.

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Arrays are equivalent based on == in the event that they have an analogous variety of parts, and if their corresponding components are all equivalent in response to ==. hashes are == in the event that they include a similar variety of seventy six | bankruptcy 3: Datatypes and gadgets key/value pairs, and if the keys and values are themselves equivalent. (Values are in comparison with the == operator, yet hash keys are in comparison with the eql? procedure, defined later during this bankruptcy. ) Equality for Java Programmers while you are a Java programmer, you're used to utilizing the == operator to check if items are an identical item, and also you are used to utilizing the equals option to attempt no matter if specified items have an analogous worth.

10). by(2) {|x| print x} # Prints "0246810" (0... 10). by(2) {|x| print x} # Prints "02468" This via procedure is handy yet pointless; the diversity category already defines an iterator named step that serves an analogous objective. The middle Ruby API is a wealthy one, and it truly is worthy taking the time to review the platform (see bankruptcy nine) so that you don’t turn out spending time writing tools that experience already been applied for you! 1. 1. nine Ruby Surprises each language has positive aspects that journey up programmers who're new to the language.

This get away series is complicated adequate that we’ll describe it in its personal part (see §3. 2. 1. 3). a few of the different backslash get away sequences are imprecise and are used for encoding binary facts into strings. the entire record of break out sequences is proven in desk 3-1. three. 2 textual content | forty seven More powerfully, double-quoted string literals can also comprise arbitrary Ruby expressions. while the string is created, the expression is evaluated, switched over to a string, and inserted into the string in preference to the expression textual content itself.

As we’ll see, it truly is attainable for the message item to outline a mode named length=. If this system expects a unmarried argument, then it's an characteristic setter process and Ruby invokes it in line with project. If any such technique is outlined, then those traces of code could either invoke an identical approach: message. length=(3) message. size = three # conventional strategy invocation # strategy invocation masquerading as task Now reflect on the subsequent line of code, assuming that the variable a holds an array: a[0] you may back imagine that it is a distinctive type of variable reference expression, the place the variable in query is de facto an array point.

It's worthy noticing that the implementation of this iterator makes use of one other iterator internally: # Generate n issues calmly spaced round the circumference of a # circle of radius r established at (0,0). Yield the x and y coordinates # of every element to the linked block. def circle(r,n) n. occasions do |i| # become aware of that this system is carried out with a block perspective = Math::PI * 2 * i / n yield r*Math. cos(angle), r*Math. sin(angle) finish finish # This invocation of the iterator prints: # (1. 00, zero. 00) (0. 00, 1.

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